From Digital Principles & Logic Design

Logic gates and memory devices are fabricated as integrated circuits (ICs) because the components used, such as resistors, diodes, bipolar junction transistors, and the insulated gate or metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors are the integral parts of the chip. The various components are interconnected within the chip to form an electronic circuit during assembly. The chip is mounted on a metal or plastic package, and connections are welded to the external pins to form an IC. The ICs result in an increase in reliability and reduction in weight and size.

Small-scale integration (SSI) refers to ICs housing fewer than 10 gates in a single chip. Medium-scale integration (MSI) includes 11 to 100 gates, whereas large-scale integration (LSI) refers to more than 100 to 5000 gates in a single chip. Very large-scale integration (VLSI) devices contain several thousands of gates per chip.

Integrated circuits are classified into two general categories - (a) linear and (b) digital. Linear integrated circuits are operated with continuous signals and are used to construct electronic circuits such as amplifiers, voltage comparators, voltage regulators, etc. Digital circuits are operated with binary signals and are invariably constructed with integrated circuits. This chapter describes the basic internal structure of...


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Digital Multimeters
Digital multimeters (or multi-meters) are used to measure electrical quantities such as voltage, current, resistance, frequency, temperature, capacitance, and time period measurements.
Microcontrollers (MCU)
Microcontrollers (MCU) are complete computer systems on a chip. They combine an arithmetic logic unit (ALU), memory, timer/counters, serial port, input/output (I/O) ports and a clock oscillator.
Programmable Logic Devices (PLD)
Programmable logic devices (PLD) are designed with configurable logic and flip-flops linked together with programmable interconnect. PLDs provide specific functions, including device-to-device interfacing, data communication, signal processing, data display, timing and control operations, and almost every other function a system must perform.
Simple Programmable Logic Devices (SPLD)
Programmable logic devices (PLD) are digital devices with configurable logic and flip-flops linked together with programmable interconnect.
Complex Programmable Logic Devices (CPLD)
Complex programmable logic devices (CPLDs) are integrated circuits (ICs) or chips that application designers configure to implement digital hardware such as mobile phones. CPLDs can handle significantly larger designs than simple programmable logic devices (SPLDs), but provide less logic than field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs).

Topics of Interest

Different types of logic gates and their symbols have been discussed in this book with their applications. However, readers may find alternate gate symbols while referring to other books. The...

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