From Process Heat Transfer: Principles and Applications

3.1 Introduction

In this chapter, we consider some of the techniques that are used in the analysis of industrial heat-exchange equipment. Of the many types of commercially available heat exchangers, the discussion will be limited to two, namely, the double pipe exchanger and the shell-and-tube exchanger. The double pipe is the simplest type of heat exchanger, while the shell-and-tube is the most widely used type of exchanger in the chemical process industries. For information on other types of heat-transfer equipment, the reader is referred to Refs. [1 3], as well as Chapter 12.

Heat-exchanger calculations can be divided into two distinct categories, namely, thermal and hydraulic calculations on the one hand and mechanical design calculations on the other. Thermal and hydraulic calculations are made to determine heat-transfer rates and pressure drops needed for equipment sizing. Mechanical design calculations are concerned with detailed equipment specifications, and include considerations such as stress and tube vibration analyses. In this chapter we will be concerned with thermal calculations only. Hydraulic calculations are considered in subsequent chapters, as is software that performs mechanical design calculations.

Heat-exchanger problems may also be categorized as rating problems or design problems. In a rating problem, one must determine whether a given, fully specified exchanger will perform a given heat-transfer duty satisfactorily. It is immaterial whether the exchanger physically exists or whether it is specified only on paper. In a design problem, one must determine the specifications for a heat exchanger that will handle a given heat-transfer duty. A rating calculation...

Products & Services
Heat Exchangers
Heat exchangers are commonly used in a wide variety of industrial, chemical, and electronics processes to transfer energy and provide required heating or cooling.
Condensers are devices which accept a vapor stream and convert it to a liquid using heat transfer and/or compression.They are used in steam turbines for power plants, in cooling units for in-process fluids, and in air conditioning systems for buildings and automobiles.
Heat Pipes
Heat pipes are self-contained heat pumps that can transport heat at high rates over fairly substantial distances with no external pumping power.
Vaporizers are heat exchangers that convert liquefied gases to a warm gaseous product. The heat source can be ambient air, steam or water.
Central Heating Systems
Central heating systems provide heat from a single point to multiple rooms, typically with a furnace or boiler and vents, pipes, or radiators.

Topics of Interest

4.1 Introduction The basic calculations involved in the thermal analysis of double-pipe heat exchangers were presented in the previous chapter. In the present chapter we consider the design of...

5.1 Introduction Preliminary design- and thermal-rating calculations for shell-and-tube exchangers were presented in Chapter 3. Both are used, along with hydraulic calculations, in the complete...

OVERVIEW Key Learning Objectives How to specify and design a shell and tube heat exchanger How to design boilers, thermosyphon reboilers and condensers How to design a plate heat exchanger How to...

Overview After distillation, heat transfer is the most important operation in a process plant. Most of the heat transfer in chemical plants and petroleum refineries takes place in shell-and-tube heat...

10.1 Introduction A reboiler is a heat exchanger that is used to generate the vapor supplied to the bottom tray of a distillation column. The liquid from the bottom of the column is partially...