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Technology:

Surface Metrology:

Measurement Capability:

Common Specific Parameters:

Standards Compliance:

Vertical (Z) Range:

Vertical (Z) Resolution:

Lateral (X) Resolution:

Traverse Length:

Scan Rate:

Part Diameter / Width:

Industrial Applications:

Factory / Production Use?

Bore / ID Analysis?

Mounting / Loading:

Display & Special Features:

Operating Temperature:

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Help with Surface Profilometers specifications:

Technology
           
   Your choices are...         
   Contact / Stylus Based       Contact or stylus-based instruments measure surface texture by dragging a sharp, pointed tool across the surface. Height variations of the tip are recorded and then used to form a texture profile of the surface. Roughness and waviness parameters are also calculated from the profile data. Typically, contact devices can provide only a two-dimensional (2D) or line profile. 
   Non-contact - Optical / Laser       Non-contact instruments measure surface texture by optically scanning a surface with a light or laser. Optical or light-based instruments may also use triangulation or interferometry to measure or capture a surface profile. Typically, non-contact devices can provide a two-dimensional (2D) or line profile, as well as three-dimensional (3D) or areal topography measurements. 2D or 3D roughness and waviness parameters are calculated from the profile data. 
   Other       Other unlisted or proprietary technologies. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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Surface Metrology
           
   Your choices are...         
   2D / Line Profile       Instruments can capture a two-dimensional (2D) or line profile, or measure the 2D parameters of a surface.  
   3D / Areal Topography       Instruments can capture a three-dimensional (3D) or areal profile, or measure the 3D parameters of a surface. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   Measurement Capability       
   Your choices are...         
   Roughness Parameters (Ra, RMS / Rq, Rz, etc.)       Instrument can measure roughness profile or provide roughness parameters such as roughness average (Ra), root mean square roughness (RMS / Rq), roughness height (Rz). Roughness profiles are the finer scale surface variations that remain after form and waviness variations have been filtered out of the raw profile. Examples of roughness parameters include: Ra, Rq, Rt, Rp, Ry, Rku, Rsk, RSm, Rz, Rλq, RTp, RHTp, Rlo, RΔq, RPC, RzJIS, and R3z. 
   Spacing Parameters (PC, Sm)       Spacing parameters measure the horizontal or lateral peak-and- valley variations of a profile along the surface. Instruments can measure or provide spacing parameters such as peak count (Pc) or peak spacing average (Sm). Other spacing parameters include: Pc, peak density, peak spacing, S, Sm, summits, summit density, summit spacing, valleys, valley density, and valley spacing. 
   Waviness Parameters (Wa,Wt )       Instruments can measure or provide waviness parameters such as waviness average (Wa) or waviness height (Wt). Waviness is a variation of the surface on a larger scale or wavelength than surface roughness, but at a shorter wavelength or scale than form variations. Surface texture consists of a combination of waviness and roughness variations. The roughness profile is superimposed on the waviness variations. Examples of waviness parameters include: Wa, Wq, Wt, Wp, Wv, Wku, Wsk, WSm, Wz, WzJIS, Wλq, WΔq, WTp, WHTp, WLo, WPC, and W3z. 
   Hybrid Parameters       Instrument can measure or provide hybrid parameters, which are combinations of spacing and amplitude parameters. 
   Defects / ADC       Instruments with the ability to detect residual traces of films or depressions (dimple defects) or patterned conductor or pad flaws on the surface of a substrate or wafer after polishing, CMP, etching, or other processes. Instruments with automatic defect classification (ADC) have image processors and software algorithms that can determine the type of defect on a wafer or device. 
   Flatness       Flatness places all of the points on a part's surface within a single plane. Flatness is often quantified by comparing a part's surface to a reference plane or optical flat. Typically, a least-squares reference or centerline plane is used. The areas above and below the reference plane are equal, and kept to a minimum separation. The highest peak-to-valley normal measurement provides an indication of part flatness. Flatness can also be analyzed with the minimum zone calculation method. The surface data to be analyzed is enclosed by two parallel planes with only minimal separation. The level of flatness or flatness error is then indicated by the amount of separation between the two planes. Roundness systems are also used to measure the flatness of upper or lower surfaces. They rotate the gauge so that the stylus deflection is in a vertical direction. 
   Lay / Pattern       Instrument is capable of detecting patterns or lay of a surface. Lay is a surface texture with a predominant directional pattern due to machining, grinding, or other processes. 
   Step Height       Instruments are capable of step-height dimensional measurements of sample features or deposited films. 
   Thickness       Instruments are capable of dimensional measurements of sample or film thickness. 
   Warp / Bow       Instruments are capable of bow and warp measurements of thin samples, substrates, wafers, or discs. Bow in a water or thin sample is a distortion perpendicular to the surface from a straight, flat plane. Warp is a twisting variation of a part's surface from a straight, flat plane. 
   Specialty / Custom       Instruments can measure or provide other unlisted or custom parameters for a particular industry application. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   Common Specific Parameters:       
   Your choices are...         
   Roughness Average (Ra)       Roughness average, Ra, AA, or center line average (CLA) is the arithmetic mean of peaks and valleys or departures from the centerline. Ra is one of the most common parameters used to describe surfaces and on part specifications. Ra has limitations is often supplemented with other measurements on more sophisticated components. Sa would be the equivalent amplitude parameter on a 3D or areal basis. 
   Roughness - RMS (Rq)       Roughness average, Rq, or RMS is the root mean square measurement of the peaks and valleys deviations or departures from the centerline over the sampling length. Rq or RMS has replaced Ra in many cases as a surface measurement parameter on part specifications. 
   Mean Peak to Valley Height (Rtm, Rz)       The mean peak to valley roughness is the difference between the highest peak and lowest valley in each sample on the evaluation length. Usually, the assessment length is divided into five sampling or cutoff lengths. Rtm is not as sensitive a single high peak or low valley measurement of the profile such as Rt, Rp, or Rv. Rtm is the mean roughness depth. Rtm is equivalent to Rz ISO when more than one sample length is evaluated (typically five). Rtm is equal to the sum of the Rp + Rv values in each sample length divided by the number of sample lengths.  Rz = Rtm = Rpm + Rvm The current ASME/ISO Rz or maximum roughness depth parameter should not be confused with the JIS 10-point Rz or the older, defunct ISO 10-point height Rz parameter. 
   Base Roughness Depth (R3Z)       Base roughness depth (R3z) is the average of distance from the third highest peak to the third deepest valley within each of five sampling lengths. R3z was originally based on a Daimler Benz standard. 
   Maximum Peak Height (RP)       The "peak" or maximum peak height (Rp) is the maximum height of the profile above the mean line within the sampling length. The highest point on the profile above the mean line within the sample over the entire set of readings. The Rp parameter is more sensitive or effected by a single spike, raised bur, or high defect than the "mean peak" Rpm parameter.  
   Average Peak Profile Height (Rpm)       In ISO standards, the mean peak profile height (Rpm) is the average of the five highest peaks found within each of five sampling lengths. It is the average peak height above the centerline of the profile. The "mean peak" Rpm parameter is not as sensitive to single or unusual surface features. If a single spike, raised bur, or high point will not diminish product appearance or performance; then Rpm may provide a consistent measure surface quality check in some applications. 
   Maximum Valley Depth (RV)       The "Valley" or maximum valley depth (Rp) is the maximum depth of the profile below the mean line within the sample over the entire set of readings. The Rv parameter is more sensitive or effected by a deep scratch, pit, or low defect than the "mean valley" Rvm parameter. 
   Total Roughness Height (Rt, PV)       The total or maximum profile height (Rt or PV) is the maximum peak to valley height of the surface profile within the assessment length. The Rt parameter is more sensitive or effected by a single spike, deep scratch, raised burr, or low pit defect than the Rtm parameter. The highest single Rzi value assessed is equal to Rt. Rzi = Rt = Rp + Rv 
   Profile Depth (Pt)       The profile depth (Pt) or the total height of the profile is the sum of the largest profile peak height and the largest profile valley depth in the evaluation length. The form values have been removed from the surface texture profile, but otherwise the profile is unfiltered. Other raw or unfiltered profile parameters include Pa, Pq, Pt, Pp, Pv, Pku, Psk, PSm, Pz, PDq, Plq, PTp, PHTp, PLo, PPc. 
   Maximum Roughness Depth (Rmax, Ry)        Rmax is the maximum peak to valley profile height. Rmax, Ry, Rz1max, or Rymax has the highest value of all peak to valley surface texture parameters. The single roughness depths are first determined by measuring the peak to valley distance within each sampling length of evaluation. Rmax is the largest of all of the single roughness depth of peak to valley height values over the entire evaluation length. Rmax is the greatest peak to valley distance within any single sampling length, which is defined as the height distance between the top of highest peak to the bottom of the lowest valley. Ry is sometimes used to refer to Rmax. 
   Ten Point Height (Rz JIS)       "Ten point height" is the average absolute value of the five highest points and five lowest valleys over the evaluation or assessment length. Ten point height was used for Rz measurement, but the Rz parameter is assessed differently in current ISO and ASME standard methods. The JIS systems still uses a Ten Point Height Rz parameter. The ISO 4287/1-1984 standards had a 10-point height Rz parameter, but the ISO 10-point height parameter was removed in later ISO surface texture standards. 
   Skewness (Rsk)       Skewness (Rsk) provides an indication of symmetry of the profile around the mean or center line. A positive skew measurement occurs with profiles a higher amount of peaks or "peaky" surfaces. Negative skew surfaces have higher levels of valleys and are better for bearing applications. 
   Kurtosis (Rku)       Kurtosis (Rku) provides an indication of the sharpness of a profile or the randomness of the heights. 
   Waviness Average (Wa)       Surface texture consists of a combination of waviness and roughness variations. Waviness is a variation of the surface on a larger scale or wavelength than surface roughness. Waviness average (Wa) is the arithmetic mean of waviness peak and valley departures from the center line or plane. 
   Waviness Height (Wt)       Waviness height (Wt) or the total height of the waviness profile is the sum of the largest profile peak height and the largest profile valley depth of the waviness profile within the evaluation or assessment length. 
   Peak Count (PC)       Pc is the peak count. For peak counts, peaks are defined as the point on the profile above software selected height or bandwidth. 
   Peak Spacing Average (Sm)       Sm is mean width of the profile elements or the average peak spacing at the mean line over the assessment or evaluation length. Peaks are defined as the highest point on the profile between two adjacent upward and downward crossings of the mean line. Rsm in the ISO system correlates to Sm in the ASME system. 
   Core Roughness Depth (Rk)       Core Roughness Depth (Rk) is a hybrid parameter that describes the main bearing area of the surface. Core Roughness Depth provides an indication of the long term running surface that influences bearing performance after the initial high points or peaks have been worn away. The Core Roughness Depth falls between the Reduced Peak Height (Rpk) and the Reduced Valley Depth (Rvk). Reduced Peak Height (Rpk) is a measure of the surface profile that is worn away during the initial run-in period. Reduced Valley Depth (Rvk) is the region of the surface profile that always retains lubricant. 
   Bearing Ratio (TP, Rmr)       Bearing ratio or profile bearing ration is a hybrid parameter.  Bearing ratio is percentage of the length of the bearing surface at any specified depth in the evaluation area. Tp indicates a bearing ratio from 2D or linear profiles. Stp indicates a bearing ratio from areal profile measurements. The relative material ratio (Rmr) in the ISO system is the equivalent of Tp in the ASME system. 
   SlopeRa (Δa)       Slope Ra, Delta a, Rda, RΔ a, Δ a, or del A is a measure of the slope of the average profile within the sample length. Slope Ra is hybrid parameter, which combines spacing and peak measurements. A higher del a angle indicate better reflectance, while lower del a angles indicates higher friction and improved mechanical adhesion. 
   SlopeRMS (Δq)       Slope Rq, Delta q, Rdq, RΔ q, Δq or del q is a measure of the rms slope of the profile within the sample length. Slope Rq is hybrid parameter, which combines spacing and peak measurements. A higher del q angle indicates better reflectance, while lower del q angles indicate higher friction and improved mechanical adhesion. 
   Other       Other unlisted parameters. 
   Search Logic:      Products with the selected attribute will be returned as matches. Leaving or selecting "No Preference" will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   Standards Compliance       
   Your choices are...         
   ASME       Instruments provide ASME surface texture parameters. Profile measurements, filtering, and data processing are defined in accordance with American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) requirements and related procedures such as ASME B46.1. 
   ISO / EN       Instruments provide ISO surface texture parameters. Profile measurements, filtering, and data processing are defined in accordance with International Standards Organization (ISO) or Euronorm (EN) requirements and related procedures such as ISO 4287:1997. 
   DIN       Instruments provide DIN surface texture parameters. Profile measurements, filtering, and data processing are defined in accordance with standards from Deutsches Institut für Normung, a German organization for standardization. In many cases, the DIN standards system has been replaced by ISO or EN standards. 
   JIS       Instruments provide JIS surface texture parameters. Profile measurements, filtering, and data processing are defined in accordance with Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS). 
   Other       Other unlisted, specialty, or proprietary standards. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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Specifications
   Vertical (Z) Range       This is the vertical range of surface texture that the instrument can measure on the sample's surface, or the range of peak-to-valley distances or heights that can be measured. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Vertical (Z) Resolution       Vertical resolution is the minimum profile-height resolution that the instrument can attain. 
   Search Logic:      All matching products will have a value less than or equal to the specified value.
   Lateral (X) Resolution       Lateral resolution is the minimum profile peak, valley, or spacing resolution that the instrument can attain. 
   Search Logic:      All matching products will have a value less than or equal to the specified value.
   Traverse Length:       The full distance optically scanned or over which the stylus is drawn for a data collection operation. The traverse or scan length is the lateral path parallel to the surface is being profiled. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Scan Rate       Scan rate is the speed required to optically scan or drag a stylus over the transverse length during the collection of profile data. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Part Diameter / Width       This is the part diameter or width range that can be measured with the instrument. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
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Industrial Applications
           
   Your choices are...         
   Aerospace / Defense       Instruments measure or monitor the surfaces of aerospace or defense products. 
   Automotive       Instruments measure or monitor the surfaces of automotive or vehicular products. 
   Coatings (Thin Films, Plating, etc.)       Instruments are designed or suitable for measurements of coatings, plated layers, spray deposits, or thin films. Coating parameters and measured features can include coating thickness, thickness variations, roughness, texture, and coating defects. 
   Displays / FPD       Instruments measure or monitor flat panel display (FPD) thin film processes or resulting surfaces. 
   Electronics       Instruments measure or monitor the surfaces of electronic components such as printed circuit boards (PCB), electrical contacts, or other electrical devices. 
   Mechanical Parts (Bearings, Shafting)       Instruments are designed or suitable for assessing mechanical components such as bearings, bushings, shafting, spindles, seals, cams and crankshafts, gears, and splined or keyed shafts. 
   Medical       Instruments are designed to measure surfaces and coatings of implants, prostheses, medical devices, surgical tools, and other biotechnology products, or to enhance and/or assure compatibility, functionality, and quality in medical applications. 
   MEMS       Instruments are designed for measuring micro-electromechanical (MEMS) devices, sensors, and components. 
   Nanomaterials       Instruments are designed for research or measurement of material structures, powder, fibers, thin films, or electronic circuits in the nanometer (10-9 meter) range (<100 nm). 
   Optics / Photonics       Instruments are used for the inspection or process monitoring of optical or photonic components, optical thin films, and surfaces such as lenses, optical fibers, masks, anti-reflective coatings, and reflective films. 
   Precision Machining / Grinding       Instruments are designed or suitable for measuring or monitoring product manufacturing in precision machining and grinding facilities. 
   Semiconductor Manufacturing       Instruments are designed for suitable for the inspection or metrology of bare wafers made of silicon or other materials.  These instruments check for warp, bow, flatness, total thickness variations (TTV), roughness, waviness variations, and other defects. 
   Storage Media       Instruments are used to measure or monitor thin films or surfaces produced for memory or data storage components such as magnetic media, optical drive disks, or read/write heads. 
   Wear / Tribology       Instruments are designed or suitable for measuring wear features, and for performing evaluations for wear studies. 
   Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary applications. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   Factory / Production Use       Large, floor mounted vacuum deposition systems designed for high volume factory use or processing large components. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
   Bore / ID Analysis       Instrument has the ability to measure profiles on internal, bore, or ID surfaces. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
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Features
   Mounting / Loading:       
   Your choices are...         
   Benchtop       Devices are benchtop or table-based. The part is both manually loaded and measured. 
   Floor / Free Standing       Floor-mounted and free-standing instruments are larger units dedicated to a specific inspection or analysis task in production or research applications. 
   Handheld / Portable       Handheld or portable instruments can be lifted and moved to a location for measuring parts on the plant floor, or on the surfaces of large machines in the field.  
   Machine Mounted       Products are designed to be mounted on or within a machine tool or production line device for tool setup, continuous measurement, and/or process monitoring. Typically, parts are presented automatically or semi-automatically to the surface metrology head. 
   Other       Other unlisted mounting or loading system. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   Display & Special Features       
   Your choices are...         
   Analog Meter       Data is displayed with an analog meter or simple visual indicator. 
   Computer Interface / Networkable       The instrument can be connected to a network or personal computer (PC) for transfer of data or test control. 
   Digital Readout       Device uses numerical or application-specific displays. 
   FFT Analysis       Instruments can perform fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis. FFT analysis is useful in detecting periodic noise or harmonics in a profile. The FFT algorithm quickly computes the digital form of the Fourier transform. Fourier transforms are very useful in processing and analyzing spectra, signals, and profiles. 
   Power Spectrum Density (PSD)       Instruments can perform power spectrum density (PSD) or frequency analysis. PSD methods are used to monitor process changes in optical manufacturing, such as the effects of tool wear, tool chatter, and feed rate. 
   SPC / Software Capability       Instruments have integral or optional statistical process control (SPC) software or SPC software capabilities. 
   Video / Graphic Display       Data is presented in video format via cathode ray tubes (CRT), liquid crystal displays (LCD), or other multi-line forms. 
   Other       Other unlisted display types. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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Environment
   Operating Temperature       This is the full required range of ambient operating temperatures. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the limits in a "From - To" range; when both are specified, matching products will cover entire range. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
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