Trash pumps are portable pumps and are typically for dewatering applications. Trash pumps are designed to pump large amounts of water that contains hard and soft solids such as mud, leaves, twigs, sand, and sludge. Most devices are portable, heavy-duty centrifugal pumps that feature deeper impeller vanes and larger discharge openings than other pumps. Trash pumps, which are capable of processing materials with suspended particulates that would clog other centrifugal pumps, can move hundreds or even thousands of gallons per minute. Trash pumps do not grind up the materials that enter the pump.
The design of a trash pump usually involves a large discharge opening; deep impellers veins, and pump housing. Trash pumps are made from multiple materials including: aluminum, steel, stainless steel, and cast iron. Most pumps come with roll cages.
Semi-trash pumps, a type of trash pump with a smaller opening, are not designed to handle large solids or high concentrations of solids. Consequently, regular trash pumps are better suited for applications that require rigorous pumping of solid-laden water or slurries. Some manufacturers do not separate trash pumps from semi-trash pumps, so a careful analysis of product capabilities is important when selecting devices.
A hose with a strainer is used with trash pumps so the hose doesn't get clogged with items too big to pass through. The strainer sifts the debris that the pump can handle and leaves out the debris that's too big.
Trash Pumps How-To-Guide
Video Credit: Griffin Dewatering
The majority of trash pumps are centrifugal pumps; there are four types of trash pumps: syringe pumps, sanitary pumps, progressive cavity pumps, and positive displacement pumps.
Syringe pumps are used for processing materials that require exact flow amount at exact time intervals. There are two types of syringe pumps: withdrawal pumps remove the fluid and infusion pumps process fluid at highly controlled pressures.
Sanitary pumps are used in applications that require a higher level of sanitation such as in food, breweries, and biotech companies. This type of pump can also move slurries and meter solutions. Sanitary pumps offer a variety of pump types and features.
Progressive cavity pumps are used for moving slurries and fluids with suspended solids. The fluids are moved from one side of the pump (suction) to another side (discharge) and then to a storage tank or through a pipeline. Cavity pumps can efficiently transfer slower-moving viscous materials and fluids from these pumps can be moved in a continuous flow. They can be used in applications requiring greater sterility and sanitation since they can be easily cleaned.
Positive displacement pumps use pistons, gears, diaphragms, and other devices to pump fluids through. They are also moved by a vacuum created when the fluid is pumped into a fixed cavity and then pumped out again, creating a vacuum that sucks in other fluids. Displacement pumps are best used on viscous liquids that are under great pressure. They have many applications and offer a variety of features.
Trash pumps are available with a variety of features.
Adjustable speed pumps can operate at speeds selected by an operator while continuous duty pumps maintain performance specifications at 100% duty cycle.
Run dry capable pumps can operate without pumped fluid or external lubrication for an extended period of time.
Self-priming pumps are designed to create and maintain a vacuum level that is sufficient to draw fluid into the inlet without external assistance.
Some sampling pumps include a control panel, battery backup, pressure gauge, strainer or filter, and suction. Other trash pumps are belt-driven, close coupled, plug-in, or portable. Non-clog pumps can move sticky or stringy materials. With frame-mounted devices, the pump end is mounted on a bearing frame that is coupled to the motor.
Important specifications for trash pumps include maximum discharge flow, maximum discharge pressure, inlet size, discharge size, and horsepower. Power sources include alternating current (AC), direct current (DC), compressed air, gasoline, diesel fuel, hydraulic systems, natural gas, water, steam, and solar energy. Pumps that do not include a power source typically provide a drive shaft for connection to a motor. Manually powered pumps rely upon hand or foot power.
Trash pumps are used in a variety of industrial, municipal, and specialty applications. Examples include agriculture and horticulture, construction, flood control, mining, oil and gas production, and pulp and paper production. Petrochemical and hydrocarbon pumps are rated for materials such as gasoline, kerosene, diesel oil, lubricating oil, paraffin wax, and asphalt.
They also have household uses such as to remove waste water, liquids, sewage, and sludge from a flooded basement, broken water pipe, or filthy spill.
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Dosing pumps are low-volume fluid pumps with controllable discharge rates used to inject additives into the mixing or pumping system.
Magnetic Drive Pumps
Magnetic drive pumps are sealless pumps that use a coaxial magnetic coupling to transmit torque to an impeller. A standard electric motor drives a set of permanent magnets that are mounted on a carrier or drive assembly.
Plastic pumps are designed to move fluids that would corrode or damage other types of pumps. They provide broad chemical resistance and are less costly and lighter in weight than metal pumps.
Positive Displacement Pumps
Positive displacement pumps use a mechanical force such as gears, bladders, pistons, plungers or diaphragms to push liquid through and out of the pump.
Progressing Cavity Pumps
Progressing cavity pumps are a type of rotary positive displacement pump designed to transfer fluid or media with suspended solids or slurries from the suction side of the pump to the discharge side of the pump, from storage tanks or through pipelines.
Sanitary pumps are used to transport and meter solutions, slurries, and colloids of food and agricultural materials in operations such as food processing that require cleanliness. There are four basic types of sanitary pumps: centrifugal, positive displacement, jet, and airlift.
Infusion or withdrawal syringe pumps provide high pressure and high accuracy for applications such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Used to deliver precise amounts of fluid at specific time intervals.