From Marks' Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineering



JOHN T. BENEDICT Retired Standards Engineer and Consultant, Society of Automotive

V. TERREY HAWTHORNE Vice President, Engineering and Technical Services, American Steel

KEITH L. HAWTHORNE Senior Assistant Vice President, Transportation Technology Center,
Association of American Railroads

MICHAEL C. TRACY Captain, U.S. Navy

MICHAEL W. M. JENKINS Professor, Aerospace Design, Georgia Institute of Technology

SANFORD FLEETER Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Director, Thermal Sciences and
Propulsion Center, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University

AARON COHEN Retired Center Director, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, NASA and Zachry
Professor, Texas A & M University

G. DAVID BOUNDS Senior Engineer, PanEnergy Corp.


by John T. Benedict

REFERENCES: "Motor Vehicle Facts and Figures, 1995," American Automobile Manufacturers Association. "Fundamentals of Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles," Chrysler Corp. "Year Book," The Tire and Rim Association, Inc. "Automobile Tires," The Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co. "Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics," GMI Engineering and Management Institute. "Vehicle Performance and Economy Prediction," GMI Engineering and Management Institute. Various publications of the Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. (SAE) including: "Tire Rolling Losses," Proceedings P-74; "Automotive Aerodynamics," PT-78; "Driveshaft Design Manual," AE-7; "Design for Fuel Economy," SP-452; Bosch, "Automotive Handbook"; Limpert, "Brake Design and Safety"; Fitch, "Motor Truck Engineering Handbook"; "Truck Systems Design Handbook," PT-41; "Antilock Systems for Air-Braked Vehicles," SP-789; "Vehicle Dynamics, Braking and Steering," SP-801; "Heavy-Duty Drivetrains," SP-868; "Transmission and Driveline Developments for Trucks," SP-893; "Design and Performance of Climate Control Systems," SP-916; "Vehicle Suspension and Steering Systems," SP-952; "ABS/TCS and Brake Technology," SP-953;

Products & Services
Automotive Services
Automotive services provide design, engineering, testing, maintenance, repair, and manufacturing services to the automotive industry.

A tire is a reinforced rubber membrane located on a wheel rim. It improves traction, handling, and cushioning of the vehicles or equipment that it supports.

Steering Wheels
Steering wheels are the most common manual interface to direct a vessel or vehicle. They are integral devices that control the orientation of the vehicle's directional mechanism, such as a rudder or rack-and-pinion system.
Tire Protection Chains
Tire protection chains are used to reduce the danger of tire puncture from sharp rocks, heat, scrap metal or other hazards.
Standards and Technical Documents
Standards and technical documents includes standards, codes, regulation, handbooks, manuals, comprehensive guides and other formal publications. Standards, codes, and regulation establish uniform specifications, procedures or technical criteria.

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