Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook, Eighth Edition


Section 4: Thermodynamics

Overview

Hendrick C. Van Ness, D.Eng. Howard P. Isermann Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Member, American Chemical Society (Section Coeditor)

Michael M. Abbott, Ph.D. Deceased; Professor Emeritus, Howard P. Isermann Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Section Coeditor) [*]

INTRODUCTION

Postulate 1

4-4

Postulate 2 (First Law of Thermodynamics)

4-4

Postulate 3

4-5

Postulate 4 (Second Law of Thermodynamics)

4-5

Postulate 5

4-5

VARIABLES, DEFINITIONS, AND RELATIONSHIPS

Constant-Composition Systems

4-6

U, H, and S as Functions of T and P or T and V

4-6

The Ideal Gas Model

4-7

Residual Properties

4-7

PROPERTY CALCULATIONS FOR GASES AND VAPORS

Evaluation of Enthalpy and Entropy in the Ideal Gas State

4-8

Residual Enthalpy and Entropy from PVT Correlations

4-9

Virial Equations of State

4-9

Cubic Equations of State

4-11

Pitzer s Generalized Correlations

4-12

OTHER PROPERTY FORMULATIONS

Liquid Phase

4-13

Liquid/Vapor Phase Transition

4-13

THERMODYNAMICS OF FLOW PROCESSES

Mass, Energy, and Entropy Balances for Open Systems

4-14

Mass Balance for Open Systems

4-14

General Energy Balance

4-14

Energy Balances for Steady-State Flow Processes

4-14

Entropy Balance for Open Systems

4-14

Summary of Equations of Balance for Open Systems

4-15

Applications to Flow Processes

4-15

Duct Flow of Compressible Fluids

4-15

Pipe Flow

4-15

Nozzles

4-15

Throttling Process

4-16

Turbines (Expanders)

4-16

Compression Processes

4-16

Example 1: LNG Vaporization and Compression

4-17