Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook, Eighth Edition

Section 17: Gas-Solid Operations and Equipment

Overview

Mel Pell, Ph.D. President, ESD Consulting Services; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Registered Professional Engineer (Delaware) (Section Editor, Fluidized-Bed Systems)

James B. Dunson, M.S. Principal Division Consultant (retired), E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co.; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers; Registered Professional Engineer (Delaware) (Gas-Solids Separations)

Ted M. Knowlton, Ph.D. Technical Director, Particulate Solid Research, Inc.; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Fluidized-Bed Systems)

FLUIDIZED-BED SYSTEMS

Gas-Solid Systems

17-2

Types of Solids

17-2

Two-Phase Theory of Fluidization

17-2

Phase Diagram (Zenz and Othmer)

17-3

Phase Diagram (Grace)

17-3

Regime Diagram (Grace)

17-3

Solids Concentration versus Height

17-5

Equipment Types

17-5

Minimum Fluidizing Velocity

17-5

Particulate Fluidization

17-6

Vibrofluidization

17-6

Design of Fluidized-Bed Systems

17-6

Fluidization Vessel

17-6

Scale-up

17-9

Heat Transfer

17-11

Temperature Control

17-12

Solids Mixing

17-12

Gas Mixing

17-12

Size Enlargement

17-12

Size Reduction

17-12

Standpipes, Solids Feeders, and Solids Flow Control

17-12

Solids Discharge

17-13

Dust Separation

17-14

Example 1: Length of Seal Leg

17-15

Instrumentation

17-15

Uses of Fluidized Beds

17-16

Chemical Reactions

17-16

Physical Contacting

17-20

GAS-SOLIDS SEPARATIONS

Nomenclature

17-21

Purpose of Dust Collection

17-24

Properties of Particle Dispersoids

17-24

Particle Measurements

17-24

Atmospheric-Pollution Measurements

17-24

Process-Gas Sampling

17-24

Particle-Size Analysis

17-24

Mechanisms of Dust Collection

17-26

Performance of Dust Collectors

17-27

Dust-Collector Design

17-27

Dust-Collection Equipment

17-28

Gravity Settling Chambers

17-28