Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook, Eighth Edition

Section 19: Reactors

Overview

Carmo J. Pereira, Ph.D., MBA DuPont Fellow, DuPont Engineering Research and Technology, E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers

Tiberiu M. Leib, Ph.D. Principal Consultant, DuPont Engineering Research and Technology, E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company; Fellow, American Institute of Chemical Engineers

REACTOR CONCEPTS

Reactor Types

19-4

Classification by Mode of Operation

19-4

Classification by End Use

19-7

Classification by Phase

19-7

Reactor Modeling

19-7

Modeling Considerations

19-7

Chemical Kinetics

19-9

Pressure Drop, Mass and Heat Transfer

19-10

Reactor Dynamics

19-11

Reactor Models

19-13

RESIDENCE TIME DISTRIBUTION AND MIXING

Tracers

19-14

Inputs

19-15

Types of Responses

19-15

Reactor Tracer Responses

19-15

Understanding Reactor Flow Patterns

19-16

Connecting RTD to Conversion

19-17

Segregated Flow

19-18

Early versus Late Mixing Maximum Mixedness

19-18

Reaction and Mixing Times

19-20

SINGLE-PHASE REACTORS

Liquid Phase

19-20

Homogeneous Catalysis

19-20

Gas Phase

19-21

Supercritical Conditions

19-21

Polymerization Reactors

19-21

FLUID-SOLID REACTORS

Heterogeneous Catalysts

19-25

Catalytic Reactors

19-27

Wire Gauzes

19-27

Monolith Catalysts

19-27

Fixed Beds

19-30

Moving Beds

19-33

Fluidized Beds

19-33

Slurry Reactors

19-36

Transport Reactors

19-36

Multifunctional Reactors

19-36

Noncatalytic Reactors

19-36

Rotary Kilns

19-36

Vertical Kilns

19-36

FLUID-FLUID REACTORS

Gas-Liquid Reactors

19-38

Liquid-Liquid Reactors

19-41

Reactor Types

19-42

Agitated Stirred Tanks

19-42

Bubble Columns

19-44

Tubular Reactors

19-46

Packed, Tray, and Spray Towers

19-46

SOLIDS...