Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook, Eighth Edition

Section 13: Distillation

Overview

M. F. Doherty, Ph.D. Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of California Santa Barbara (Section Editor)

Z. T. Fidkowski, Ph.D. Process Engineer, Air Products and Chemicals Inc. (Distillation Systems)

M. F. Malone, Ph.D. Professor of Chemical Engineering and Dean of Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst (Batch Distillation)

R. Taylor, Ph.D. Professor of Chemical Engineering, Clarkson University (Simulation of Distillation Processes)

INTRODUCTION TO DISTILLATION OPERATIONS

General Principles

13-4

Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium-Stage Concepts

13-5

Related Separation Operations

13-5

THERMODYNAMIC DATA AND MODELS

Phase Equilibrium Data

13-6

Graphical K Value Correlations

13-8

Analytical K Value Correlations

13-9

SINGLE-STAGE EQUILIBRIUM FLASH CALCULATIONS

Bubble Point and Dew Point

13-15

Isothermal Flash

13-15

Adiabatic Flash

13-16

Other Flash Specifications

13-16

Three-Phase Flash

13-16

Complex Mixtures

13-16

GRAPHICAL METHODS FOR BINARY DISTILLATION

Phase Equilibrium Diagrams

13-17

McCabe-Thiele Method

13-18

Operating Lines

13-18

Thermal Condition of the Feed

13-19

Equilibrium-Stage Construction

13-19

Total Column Construction

13-21

Feed-Stage Location

13-22

Minimum Stages

13-22

Minimum Reflux

13-24

Intermediate Reboilers and Condensers

13-24

Optimum Reflux Ratio

13-24

Difficult Separations

13-24

Equation-Based Design Methods

13-25

Stage Efficiency

13-25

Miscellaneous Operations

13-25

APPROXIMATE MULTICOMPONENT DISTILLATION METHODS

Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland (FUG) Shortcut Method

13-25

Example 1: Calculation of FUG Method

13-26

Kremser Equation

13-28

Example 2: Calculation of Kremser Method

13-28

SIMULATION OF DISTILLATION PROCESSES

Equilibrium-Stage Modeling

13-30

The MESH Equations (The 2c + 3 Formulation)

13-30

Degrees-of-Freedom Analysis and Problem Formulation

13-31

The 2c + 1 Formulation

13-32