Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook, Eighth Edition


Section 16: Adsorption and Ion Exchange

Overview

M. Douglas LeVan, Ph.D. J. Lawrence Wilson Professor of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Vanderbilt University; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society, International Adsorption Society (Section Coeditor)

Giorgio Carta, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia; Member, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Chemical Society, International Adsorption Society (Section Coeditor)

DESIGN CONCEPTS

Introduction

16-4

Example 1: Surface Area and Pore Volume of Adsorbent

16-5

Design Strategy

16-5

Characterization of Equilibria

16-5

Example 2: Calculation of Variance

16-5

Adsorbent/Ion Exchanger Selection

16-5

Fixed-Bed Behavior

16-6

Cycles

16-7

Practical Aspects

16-7

ADSORBENTS AND ION EXCHANGERS

Classifications and Characterizations

16-8

Adsorbents

16-8

Ion Exchangers

16-8

Physical Properties

16-9

SORPTION EQUILIBRIUM

General Considerations

16-11

Forces

16-11

Surface Excess

16-12

Classification of Isotherms by Shape

16-12

Categorization of Equilibrium Models

16-12

Heterogeneity

16-12

Isosteric Heat of Adsorption

16-12

Experiments

16-13

Dimensionless Concentration Variables

16-13

Single Component or Exchange

16-13

Flat-Surface Isotherm Equations

16-13

Pore-Filling Isotherm Equations

16-14

Ion Exchange

16-14

Example 3: Calculation of Useful Ion-Exchange Capacity

16-14

Donnan Uptake

16-14

Separation Factor

16-14

Example 4: Application of Isotherms

16-15

Multiple Components or Exchanges

16-16

Adsorbed-Solution Theory

16-16

Example 5: Application of Ideal Adsorbed-Solution Theory

16-16

Langmuir-Type Relations

16-16

Example 6: Comparison of Binary Langmuir Isotherms

16-16

Freundlich-Type Relations

16-16

Equations of State

16-16

Ion Exchange Stoichiometry

16-16