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Help with Deflectometers and Extensometers specifications:

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   Deflectometer       Deflectometers are used to indicate the deformation of material while it is subjected to transverse or compressive stress. 
   Extensometer       Extensometers are used to indicate the deformation of material while it is subjected to tensile stress. 
   Specialty / Other       This refers to other specialized, proprietary, or unlisted fixture types. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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   Test Applications:       
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   Adhesion (Bond / Peel)       Adhesion, bond, or peel tests are used to evaluate joints, adhesives, coatings or adhesive tape adherence, bond strength, or peel strength. ASTM D-952 defines bond strength as being “the tensile stress required to rupture a bond formed by an adhesive between two metal blocks”. Additionally, they define adhesion as being “the state in which two surfaces are held together by interfacial forces, which may consist of valence forces, interlocking action, or both”. Adhesion is one of the most important properties of a coating (thin film, paint, plating, or other systems).  ASTM C-313 standards provide a method to measure of the adherence of porcelain enamels and ceramic coatings to sheet metal. According to ASTM D-903, the peel or stripping strength of an adhesive bond is the average load per unit width of bond line required to part bonded materials where the angle of separation is 180 degrees and separation rate is 6 in/min. ASTM D-1781 uses the applied torque required to separate an adhesive and adherend in the climbing drum-peel test. This test provides the measurement of adhesion or peel resistance. Peel strength is commonly used to characterize adhesive tapes and coatings. 
   Balancing       Spin or burst test are destructive balancing tests. Other machines measure and/or correct for force or couple unbalance. 
   Compressive       During compression a material or product is squeezed by aligned opposing loads or forces.  Compression testing can be performed on materials for a variety of purposes which depend on the material type; compressive properties can be dramatically different from tensile properties. Compression tests can be performed on static or dynamic systems. Static systems are usually preferred due to the larger displacement offered, and the relatively slow speed of the system for safety purposes. The most common fixture for compression testing is the compression platen. Ideally, a set of compression platens will provide parallel surfaces for loading of the specimen. Platens should also be of sufficient hardness and smoothness as not to influence the specimen results. Platens are available in two types, fixed and spherical seats. The spherical units provide automatic alignment for higher modules, materials, or specimens that have loading surfaces that are unparallel. 
   Creep / Stress Relaxation       Creep, stress relaxation, or stress rupture tests characterize material performance when under strain/stress conditions at elevated temperatures. These tests can provide important information about material or component properties under longer-term conditions.  Creep or stress rupture tests are important for evaluating high-temperature aerospace or jet engine component materials. Stress relaxation tests are usually performed under constant strain conditions; this usually involves going to a specific load or strain point then holding the strain value. The resulting decrease in load or stress values is recorded over time. Creep tests are usually performed under constant load or stress conditions; these types of tests are performed by going to a load or stress point, then holding the load or stress value. The resulting increase in strain is recorded over time.  Short and medium term creep and stress relaxation testing can be performed on static or dynamic systems.  However, some long-term creep tests utilize a special test frame designed specifically for that purpose. 
   Drop / Shock       Drop/shock testing is often performed as part of a hardware qualification or design process. Information obtained during shock testing can improve the survivability of products and verify that they will perform properly in service. 
   Ductility       Ductility is the ability to undergo plastic deformation in tension or bending before fracturing. The ductility of metals or ductile plastic materials is typically evaluated in tensile tests. The degree of permanent plastic deformation or strain in terms of % elongation or % reduction in area provides a measure of ductility.  Specialized bend tests are also used to evaluate the ductility of welds according to ASTM E-190. The ductility of welded joints is often evaluated in bend tests.  
   Fatigue / Cyclic       Fatigue Testers measure the fatigue resistance or resistance to failure of materials under controlled conditions of cyclic deformation. Failure of the test piece is the result of crack growth and the design of the machine. The cyclic load may be applied using a tensile tester with cycling capability, rotating beam tester or vibration tester. Fatigue testers may also be known as dynamic testers. 
   Flexure / Bending       Flexure or flex tests are used to evaluate the strength of brittle, fibrous, anisotropic, or low ductility materials including ceramics, composites, cast irons, highly loaded plastics, wood, concrete and refractories. Flexure testing consists of applying a load to a beam of the test material or sample, which is supported at both ends. Flexural strength, fiber strength, or modulus of rupture (MOR) is reported in these tests.  Material properties can vary based upon the direction that stress is applied. For instance, concrete is very strong in compression, but weak in tension. Depending on the material rigidity, stiffness, or specifications either a three-point or four-point configuration is used. Four-point bend tests provide a known, uniform stress between the two central points. Test results are included as long as the sample breaks between the two central points.  Specific test standards include ASTM D-790 for plastics, ASTM C-674 for fired whiteware, ASTM D-797 for elastomers and ASTM A-438 for cast iron and ASTM D-86 for glass materials.  The term bend test is sometimes used to describe flexure tests, although bend or bending test types vary greatly and can be much different than a simple beam loading test. Bend test specifications are often particular to specific materials. Specialized bend tests are used to evaluate the ductility of welds according to ASTM E-190. Structural steel products are evaluated by bending a sample to a specified inside diameter (ASTM A-360, steel products). 
   Friction / Wear       Friction testers determine the coefficient of friction and the resisting force tangential to the interface between two bodies. This determination is based on the action of an external force where one body moves relative to the other.   Wear testers evaluate the amount or type of wear (material, removal, or transfer) that occurs between two surfaces under wet, dry, or lubricated conditions or with abrasive particles.  A pin on disc tester is a common machine used for wear tests. An applied load is transmitted through the pin to a rotating disc. The pin and disc are made of or coated with the materials to be evaluated. 
   Gaging       Gaging is the quantitative measurement of product, component dimensional attributes, and form attributes. These measurements include wall thickness, depth, height, length, inner diameter (ID), outer diameter (OD), taper, or bore. 
   Hardness       Hardness testers measure a material's resistance to indentation. This calculation is determined by measuring the permanent depth or projected area of the indentation. 
   Hydrostatic / Burst       Hydrostatic or burst testers apply an internal pressure and/or flow using a fluid (gas or liquid) to evaluate components. Components include fittings, pipe, tubing, vessel, cylinders, and hydraulic, pneumatic, or processing applications. The tests may determine how much flow and pressure a component can withstand before catastrophic failure occurs or leaks develop. 
   Impact Toughness       It is very difficult to measure many of the individual energy contributions however; however, impact tests are a valuable comparative test method. Impact tests measure the energy absorbed by the specimen before it breaks and a quantity composed of several energy contributions. This composition includes the energy absorbed by the impact machine through vibration. Vibration occurs after an initial contact with the specimen and a loss in pendulum energy (during pendulum impact tests). Energy loss occurs when total energy is consumed by specimen deformation and when the hammer striking the specimen. 
   Physical / Thermal Properties       Physical properties’ testing includes burst strength, cut and puncture resistance, life cycle and durability, pneumatics and hydraulics, Rockwell hardness, tensile strength, and elongation. Testing for thermal properties or characteristics includes conductive heat resistance, radiant protective performance (RPP), thermal conductivity, heat capacity, thermal protection or insulation properties using thermal exposure simulation, icing and high temperature exposure, or other thermal tests. 
   Pressure / Flow       Pressure and flow testing and inspection includes pressurized liquid or gas exposure, hydrostatic burst tests, flow tests, and evaluation of thermal (icing) effects on fluid systems. Pressure and flow tests are commonly used to evaluate hydraulic, pneumatic, or gas handling equipment. 
   Shear / Torsion       The shear strength is defined as the maximum stress that a material can withstand before failure in shear. In a planar shear test, opposing forces are applied parallel to the cross-sectional area under test. Torsion tests also provide an indication of shear properties. Torsion test evaluate materials or products under twisting loads or opposing radial forces according to ASTM E-143 or ISO equivalent standards. Data from torsion test is used to construct a stress-strain diagram and to determine elastic limit torsional modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture in torsion, and torsional strength. Calculation of shear strength depends upon the test method. For instance, the shear strength of a plastic is the maximum load required to shear a specimen in such a manner that the resulting pieces are completely clear of each other. Plastic shear strength is reported in psi, based on the area of the sheared edge (ASTM D-732). Timber shear strength is determined by methods given in ASTM D-143 and ASTM D-198. ASTM E-299 defines the shear strength of a structural adhesive has the maximum shear stress in the adhesive prior to failure under torsional loading. 
   Tensile       Tensile testing is the most common type of test for materials and products. Characterizing and reporting tensile test properties are a basic need in most labs from quality control to R & D. Many tensile tests are performed on static systems, although in many cases dynamic systems can be used for tensile tests. System considerations are test speed, control mode, ultimate load, and test displacement. 
   Texture Analysis       Texture analysis is primarily concerned with the evaluation of mechanical characteristics. Specifically when a food is subjected to a controlled force from which a deformation curve of its response is generated. Texture analysis is an integral part of the production chain that processes optimization and production, which is generated from research and development. Key fundamental characteristics affect finished product texture quality. These characteristics are identified throughout the initial stages of development after which they may be selected for at-line process control measurements. Common characteristics analyzed include hardness, cohesiveness, elasticity, adhesiveness, and viscosity. Secondary characteristics include brittleness, chewiness, and gumminess. 
   Universal       Universal testers have a combination of testing capabilities; these include tensile, compression, shear, or other test types. 
   Vibration       Vibration test systems are used to evaluate materials, products, and packages for design purposes as well as to simulate the vibration effects of product transportation. Vibration consists of an oscillating load. 
   Viscosity / Rheology       Viscometers define viscous properties of a fluid at ambient or defined temperatures. Rheometers characterize a liquid according to its viscous properties and elastic responses. 
   Specialty / Other       Additional specialized, proprietary, unlisted tests or standard methods for testing are another option. These tests include tear tests, breaking or fiber strength, wet strength, spring testers, asphalt testers, or other specialty test equipment. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   Your choices are...         
   ASTM       The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is a non-profit organization that develops and publishes voluntary standards for materials, products, systems, test methods, and services. Products that are ASTM-certified comply with design specifications for safety. 
   DIN       DIN is an acronym for Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN), a German national organization for standardization. 
   ISO       The International Standards Organization (ISO) is a worldwide federation of national standards organizations from over 100 countries. ISO's mission is to facilitate the international exchange of goods and services. In addition, they aim to foster cooperation in the spheres of intellectual, technological, and economic activity. ISO certifications include ISO 7779, ISO 9000, ISO 9001:1987, ISO 13485, ISO/TS 16949:2002, ISO 14000 and ISO 17025. ISO 7779 is concerned with acoustics, telecommunications equipment, and the measurement of airborne noise emitted by information technology (IT) equipment. ISO 9001:2000 establishes requirements for company quality management systems. ISO 13485 is concerned with medical devices, quality management systems, and requirements for regulatory purposes.  ISO 14000 establishes requirements for environmental management policies that minimize a company’s harmful effects on the environment. ISO 17025 outlines the general requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. 
   JIS       Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) specify the standards used for industrial activities in Japan. The standardization process is coordinated by the Japanese Industrial Standards Committee and published through the Japanese Standards Association. 
   MIL-STD       Military specifications (MIL-SPEC) or military standards (MIL-STD) must be acknowledged by suppliers. 
   OEM Specific       Suppliers provide certifications for specific original equipment manufacturer (OEM) internal company specifications or requirements.  
   Charpy       Charpy is a standardized high strain impact test used to determine the amount of energy absorbed by a material during fracture. 
   Izod       Izod is a standardized impact test.  A hammer strikes and breaks the sample.  The amount of energy absorbed in the test is a measure of impact toughness. 
   Other       This refers to other specialized, proprietary or unlisted standards. 
   Search Logic:      Products with the selected attribute will be returned as matches. Leaving or selecting "No Preference" will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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   Stroke / Travel       The stroke, travel, or maximum opening of the test fixture or grip. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Test Temperature:       This is the required range of test temperature or the temperature rating of the fixture, extensometer, or accessory. Test fixtures that are designed for use in environmental chambers will have an extended operating temperature range. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the limits in a "From - To" range; when both are specified, matching products will cover entire range. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Length       This refers to the overall length of the test fixture. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
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