##### From Machine Design Databook, Second Edition

## SYMBOLS ^{[3]}, ^{[4]}, ^{[5]}

A | area of cross section, m | |

A _{ w} | area of web, m | |

a | constant in Rankine's formula | |

b | radius of area of contact, m (in) bandwidth of contact, m (in) width of beam, m (in) | |

c | distance from neutral surface to extreme fiber, m (in) | |

D | diameter of shaft, m (in) | |

C _{1} | constant in straight-line formula | |

F | load, kN (1bf) | |

F _{ c} | compressive force, kN (1bf) | |

F _{ t} | tensile force, kN (1bf) | |

F _{?} | shear force, kN (1bf) | |

F _{ cr} | crushing load, kN (lbf) | |

e | deformation, total, m (in) eccentricity, as of force equilibrium, m (in) unit volume change or volumetric strain | |

e _{ t} | thermal expansion, m (in) | |

E | modulus of elasticity, direct (tension or compression), GPa (Mpsi) | |

E _{ c} | combined or equivalent modulus of elasticity in case of composite bars, GPa (Mpsi) | |

G | modulus of rigidity, GPa (Mpsi) | |

M _{ b} | bending moment, N m (lbf ft) | |

M _{ t} | torque, torsional moment, N m (lbf ft) | |

i | number of turns | |

I | moment of inertia, area, m | |

I _{ xx}, I _{ yy} | moment of inertia of cross-sectional area around the respective principal axes, m |

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