Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) Information
Insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) are semiconductors that combine a high voltage and high current bipolar junction transistor (BJT) with a low power and fast switching metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). Consequently, IGBTs provide faster speeds and better drive and output characteristics than power BJTs and offer higher current densities than equivalent high-powered MOSFETs.
Structurally, IGBTs feature a double diffusion of p-type and n-type regions. Applying a voltage to the gate contact forms an inversion layer under the gate. The p+ substrate layer serves as the drain, allowing the p-type region to fill the “holes” in the n-type drift region. The n+ buffer layer prevents the depletion region from extending to the bipolar collector, reducing on-state losses but drastically reducing the reverse blocking capability of the device.
- Collector-emitter breakdown voltage
- Collector-emitter “on” or saturation voltage
- Maximum collector current
- Gate-emitter leakage current
- Rise time
- Fall time
- Switching speed
- Power dissipation
Ectrostatic discharge (ESD) protection
IGBT polarity can be n-channel or p-channel
Punch-through and non-punch-through structures
Specific temperature range
Mechanical and electrical specifications that are suitable for commercial, industrial, or automotive applications
Screening levels for military specifications (MIL-SPEC)
Transistor outline (TO) packages include TO-92, a single in-line package often used for low power devices; TO-220, which is suitable for high power, medium current, and fast-switching power devices; and TO-263, the surface-mount version of the TO-220 package.
Small outline transistor (SOT) packages include SOT23, which is often used in home appliances, office and industrial equipment, personal computers, printers, and communication equipment; SOT89, a plastic, surface mounted package with three leads and a collector pad for good heat transfer; and SOT223, an encapsulated package that provides excellent performance in environments with high temperatures and humidity levels.
IC package types for IGBTs also include discrete or deca-watt package (DPAK) and flat package (FPAK).
The tape reel method packs components in a tape system by reeling specified lengths or quantities for shipping, handling, and configuration in industry-standard automated board-assembly equipment.
Rail, another standard packing method, is typically used only in production environments.
Bulk pack devices are distributed as individual parts, while tray components are shipped in trays.
The tube or stick magazine method is used to feed insulated gate bipolar transistors into automatic placement machines for through-hole or surface mounting.
IEC 60747-9 - Semiconductor devices - discrete devices - Part 9: insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTS)
SAE PAPER 2001-01-1220 - Smart IGBT for advanced ignition systems