From McGraw-Hill's Engineering Companion



1 Mass-Transfer Fundamentals.

The transfer of material from one phase to another is a primary means of separating multicomponent solutions. In general, two equilibrium phases of a multicomponent mixture will have different chemical compositions, and this difference offers a means for separating a mixture into its individual components. Repetitive phase changes can provide increasingly pure solutions and in the limiting case can produce pure individual components. Analysis of these phase-change separation processes depends on three factors: thermodynamic equilibrium, mass-transfer rates, and pattern of contact between phases.

Mass-Transfer Rates The amount of contacting required to bring two phases into equilibrium is dependent on the rate of mass transfer. The rate at which mass is transferred between phases is controlled by the driving force for mass transfer, the resistance to mass transfer, and the interfacial area between phases, according to

The overall mass-transfer coefficients are dependent on resistance to mass transfer in interfacial films (in a manner analogous to film resistances in convective heat transfer), which depend on molecular parameters, fluid turbulence near the interface, and the equilibrium relationship between phases. For equilibrium relationships which are essentially the straight lines y = mx, mass-transfer coefficients are given by

The coefficients are ordinarily determined experimentally as volumetric coefficients K Ga and K La, since interfacial areas are difficult to determine.

Continuous Contacting. Continuous-contact processes may be run with concurrent, crosscurrent, or countercurrent flow patterns. In terms of...

Products & Services
Quenching Oils and Heat Treatment Fluids
Quenching oil and heat treatment fluids are designed for rapid or controlled cooling of steel or other metal as part of a hardening, tempering or other heat-treating process.
Residual Gas Analyzers
Residual gas analyzers (RGAs) identify the gases present in vacuum environments.
Refrigerants, Antifreezes, and Cooling Liquids
Primary refrigerants use a thermodynamic or adiabatic process (evaporation-condensation cycles) to remove heat and cool a region. Secondary refrigerants such as antifreeze liquids provide cooling solely through heat transfer.
Heat Exchangers
Heat exchangers are commonly used in a wide variety of industrial, chemical, and electronics processes to transfer energy and provide required heating or cooling.
Nanomaterials have features or particle sizes in the range of 1 to 100 nm.

Topics of Interest

BASIC ELECTRICAL DEVICES AND THEIR SYMBOLS The following symbols are used to represent the basic linear electrical components: [*]This chapter originally dates from General Engineering Handbook, 2d...

13.9. SEPARATIONS IN PACKED TOWERS Continuous changes in compositions of phases flowing in contact with each other are characteristic of packed towers, spray or wetted wall columns. The theory of...

Overview In our study of mass transfer, we noted that both technically feasible analysis and design were complicated by the need to estimate two parameters in the rate expression: the mass transfer...

Equilibrium Staged Operations Process equipment involves complicated geometries, heterogeneous conditions, and complex interactions. As such, the use of mass transfer coefficients is limited. For...

Chapter List Chapter 5: Conduction and Diffusion Chapter 6: Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Chapter 7: Estimation of the Mass Transfer Coefficient and Interfacial Area in Fluid Fluid Mass...