Nozzles alter and control the stream or spray pattern of fluid in a spraying, dispensing, misting, or atomizing system. They are used to dispense media such as:
Application ratings for nozzles are based on published literature. Consult suppliers for unlisted or custom applications. Applications may include:
- Fire protection
- Fuel injection
- Spray drying
- Plasma spraying
- Thermal spraying
Maximum pressure, maximum flow and orifice size are important specifications to consider when selecting nozzles.
Most products are made of one of the following materials:
Spray patterns are characterized as:
- Concentrated or stream
- Flat or fan
- Hollow cone
- Solid cone
Nozzles differ in terms of technology and form.
Pressurized or hydraulic nozzles reduce the flow area, increasing the fluid speed and breaking the media into droplets.
Pneumatic or air-assisted nozzles use the flow of compressed air to force fluid through the nozzle. The shear force of motive flow breaks the media into droplets.
Ultrasonic nozzles are electrically-driven and used in cleaning and precision-machining applications. They oscillate at ultrasonic frequencies and break fluid into droplets without significant pressurization.
In terms of form, in-line nozzles are pipe or line-mounted with straight-through nozzle flow.
Right-angled nozzles are also pipe or line-mounted, but have a right-angle bend in the nozzle.
Some handheld nozzles have an assembly that resembles a pistol grip, typically with a flow-control trigger. Other handheld products have a long tube or wand for manual spray detection.
Nozzles provide many different features.
Adjustable products provide an adjustable position and direction, or an adjustable pattern and flow.
Nozzles with integral filters or strainers prevent clogging and contamination.
Nozzles with an integral valve offer flow or pressure control.
Rotating nozzles spin during atomizing, spray-coating or dispensing applications.
A single nozzle may include multiple orifices for specialized applications.
Products such as misters, atomizers and water dispensing nozzles are used in cleaning, fire protection, irrigation, cooling, and humidification systems.
A-A-59438 - Playpipe: Nozzle, Fire Hose
ASAE S572 - Spray nozzle classification by droplet spectra